Sunday, August 14, 2011

Regulation of Morphology of Corn Smut, Ustilago maydis

Basidiomycota, in contrast to other fungi such as Ascomycota, produce basidia that yield four sexual spores called basidiospores. U. maydis is part of this phylum. Its mating-type is determined by a tetrapolar system with two unrelated loci, a and b. There are two idiomorphs for the a locus, a1 and a2. Haploid U. maydis cells have either the 4.5kb a1 locus with genes mfa1, pra1, and rfa2, or the 8kb a2 locus with genes mfa2, pra2, lga2, and rga2. mfa1 and mfa2 encode pheromone precursors, pra1 and pra2 genes encode pheromone receptors for the a2 and a1 pheromone, respectively. rfa2, lga2, and rga2 are thought to function within mitochondria. The pheromone encoded by one idiomorph will bind to the receptor of the opposite cell type, activating a signaling cascade that induces G2 arrest and the formation of conjugation hyphae. The b locus contains two genes, bE and bW, and regulates the switch to the pathogenic filamentous stage, as well as tumor induction and the formation of teliospores. The complex mating-type regulation is not specific to U. maydis, and other Basidiomycetes such as Schizophyllum commune and Coprinus cinereus.

Promycelium undergoes meiosis to produce saprophytic haploid cells. When in contact with corn, these sporidia exchange pheromones and become conjugative hyphae. These fuse to form a dikaryote, which is able to being intracellular invasion. Tumors are induced in which the fungi proliferates. Spores are formed and spread in the air and form a promycelium.

Higher fungi, like U. maydis, make ideal genetic models because they are easy to mate, transform, and select for. Observing metabolism, virulence, genotype is easier because they tend to be linked to readily apparent morphology. U. maydis’ relatedness to animal cells makes their study even more relevant to humans. Not only do does it have microtubule organization, nuclear migration, and nuclear envelop breakdown like in humans, U. maydis has homologues of Homo sapiens proteins that other, “higher” genetic models lack, such as Brh2, a BRCA2 (Breast Cancer Type 2 susceptibility protein) homologue. In vivo studies of Brh2 made it possible for geneticists to understand the function of BRCA2 in DNA repair and tumor suppression in humans. There is no doubt of U. maydis’ importance as a genetic model to study other complex mammalian cell processes. 

No pictures. No sources. Only excellence.

35 scientific replies:

DWei said...

So this means no more eating fungus right? Good, I hate fungus.

(Also, I can't be a cute, white guy because I'm an average, Asian guy.)

(Also, also, how can a person running a science blog be a derp. :|)

NDofLB said...

Nah, you can still eat corn smut. In fact, it's a delicacy in Mexico known as huitlacoche.

Timothy Bowen said...

Corn smut sounds fun and dirty. lol

M Fawful said...

Corn smut is so scary. A product of monocultures?

Admin said...

A bit more scientific than I normally read, but still cool.

Gareth Thomas said...

Reminds of biology at college, but I'm actually interested this time.

Lady Lunacy said...

what?!? corn smut?? Lolz

Diego Sousa said...

too much fancy words and still i was interested =)

Inverse said...

"Corn Smut" sounds like a Japanese porn flick.

SlogBlog11 said...

Corn Smut. Sweetcorn porn.

Electric Addict said...

So many words I don't understand haha

Neon said...

Wait, what is a Promycelium?

Shaw said...

Hmm, interesting

Sub-Radar-Mike said...

Woah, that's a pretty complex way of mating, fungi are amazing.

That Bastard From Bellingham said...

HAH, corn smut. Having grown up in California originally, yeah I know 'bout corn smut but didn't really know the specifics in such detail.

Seriously, mating-type fungus? I always thought fungi just spored out and the spores grew on other creatures/plants...

@Neon - Googles, my friend. When in doubt, just use "define ," that's what I do.

Dictionary.refrence.com sez "Promycelium - a short filament produced in the germination of a spore that bears small spores and then dies"

This Guy said...

That is some interesting stuff! Didn't know about all of the complexity!

Airanel said...

It mystifies me...makes me wonder what the genetic story has to play in my World History discipline. Cheers for the food for thought mate!

Michael Westside said...

I would've been working with this now if I hadnt dropped out from molecylar bioengineering in college

Natural One said...

"U. maydis, make ideal genetic models because they are easy to mate, transform, and select for" Just like plants! Also some amazing stuff they're doing with plant tissue cultures, I want to try this soooo bad.

GMSoccerPicks said...

Thanks for ruining corn for me hahaha now im scared to eat corn

Kyran said...

Best fungi ever, P. Cubensis, aka magic mushrooms. If this post doesn't make sense to you now, it will after you eat a handful of these little guys.

Some say they're what prompted the evolution from ape to human. I can certainly agree that they make you more receptive to compassion, deep thinking, and higher consciousness, all of which are characteristic of (most) humans as compared to beasts. Although there still are some apes out there that haven't made the switch yet.

Neon said...

Thanks for the answer ;)

Sketchar said...

I know nothing on this subject :c seems interesting though.

convictus said...

that got a huge shoulder shrug out of me. I read the first sentence and my eyes rolled up in my head and blacked out until I found myself typing here.

Fizzums said...

I haven't read all of the back posts, so sorry if this has been answered. Are you a genetics student?

Ting Kubby said...

i won't lie, i clicked cos it had smut in the title.

Anonymous said...

nike free, kate spade outlet, prada handbags, coach factory outlet, oakley sunglasses, true religion, coach purses, oakley sunglasses, louboutin, michael kors outlet, ray ban, louis vuitton outlet online, jordan shoes, coach factory, longchamp outlet, ray ban sunglasses, louis vuitton handbags, coach outlet, nike shoes, true religion outlet, tiffany and co, michael kors outlet, true religion jeans, oakley sunglasses, gucci outlet, louboutin, chanel handbags, polo ralph lauren outlet, oakley sunglasses, ray ban sunglasses, toms shoes, oakley sunglasses, tory burch outlet, air max, coach outlet store, nike air max, polo ralph lauren, burberry outlet online, burberry outlet online

Anonymous said...

air max, nfl jerseys, nike free, marc jacobs, chi flat iron, air max, hogan, air jordan, nike free, mcm handbags, new balance shoes, ghd, mont blanc, louis vuitton, yoga pants, louis vuitton, bottega, karen millen, longchamp, juicy couture outlet, louboutin, abercrombie and fitch, rolex watches, nike air max, ralph lauren, reebok outlet, birkin bag, ralph lauren, nike air max, vans, lancel, north face outlet, insanity, supra shoes, lululemon, ferragamo shoes, beats by dre, timberland, hollister, converse shoes, mulberry

Unknown said...

qihang0710ray ban sunglasses
mcm outlet
polo ralph lauren outlet
air max shoes
louis vuitton pas cher
snabacks wholesale
toms shoes outlet
michael kors bags
nike tn
gucci outlet
chanel outlet
soccer jerseys
cheap ray ban sunglasses
pandora rings
louis vuitton
coach outlet online
cheap soccer shoes
burberry outlet
michael kors outlet
soccer shoes
ed hardy clothing
tory burch outlet online
oakley sunglasses wholesale
air jordan
coach factory outlet
jordan uk
michael kors
kate spade uk
cheap ray ban sunglasses
coach factory outlet
abercrombie outlet
oakley sunglasses discount
kate spade outlet online
gucci outlet
ray ban sunglass
kate spade outlet
nike tn pas cher
michael kors
q

dong dong said...

2015713DONGDONG
nike air max
chanel handbags
michael kors outlet
ray ban glasses
tory burch sale
michael kors
polo ralph lauren home
longchamp bags
abercrombie
cheap jordans
oakley sunglasses
lululemon
michael kors outlet
michael kors outlet online
michael kors outlet online
kobe shoes
michael kors outlet
www.louisvuitton.com
jordan 13
burberry outlet online
cheap jerseys
coach outlet stores
oakley sunglasses wholesale
michael kors outlet
polo ralph lauren
oakley vault
ralph lauren polo shirts
michael kors handbags
michael kors handbags
timberland boots
ed hardy outlet
true religion outlet
louis vuitton
christian louboutin
air jordan 11
coach
prada outlet

ninest123 Ninest said...

ninest123 08.08
michael kors outlet, coach outlet, louboutin, tiffany jewelry, burberry outlet online, nike air max, chanel handbags, michael kors outlet, oakley sunglasses, gucci outlet, longchamp outlet, longchamp, prada handbags, ray ban sunglasses, oakley sunglasses, coach purses, replica watches, burberry, jordan shoes, kate spade outlet, ray ban sunglasses, michael kors outlet, nike outlet, louboutin outlet, kate spade handbags, coach factory outlet, coach outlet, tory burch outlet, polo ralph lauren outlet, nike free, michael kors outlet, christian louboutin outlet, tiffany and co, prada outlet, true religion jeans, michael kors outlet, longchamp outlet, louboutin shoes, oakley sunglasses, polo ralph lauren outlet, nike air max, michael kors

ninest123 Ninest said...

louboutin pas cher, michael kors, sac guess, michael kors, nike air max, air jordan pas cher, ray ban uk, hollister pas cher, vans pas cher, converse pas cher, true religion jeans, michael kors, oakley pas cher, true religion outlet, nike blazer, nike air max, timberland, lacoste pas cher, north face, nike free, vanessa bruno, hollister, nike air max, burberry, true religion jeans, lululemon, longchamp pas cher, nike free run uk, tn pas cher, nike roshe run, air max, ralph lauren uk, mulberry, hogan, abercrombie and fitch, north face, air force, new balance pas cher, hermes, sac longchamp, ralph lauren pas cher, ray ban pas cher

ninest123 Ninest said...

herve leger, ferragamo shoes, new balance, giuseppe zanotti, nfl jerseys, mac cosmetics, nike roshe, asics running shoes, oakley, vans shoes, north face outlet, baseball bats, reebok shoes, insanity workout, birkin bag, babyliss, valentino shoes, mcm handbags, beats by dre, nike trainers, mont blanc, p90x workout, nike huarache, ghd, instyler, timberland boots, celine handbags, jimmy choo shoes, abercrombie and fitch, hollister, iphone 6 cases, nike roshe, soccer shoes, nike air max, longchamp, chi flat iron, hollister, soccer jerseys, north face outlet, bottega veneta, lululemon, wedding dresses

ninest123 Ninest said...

thomas sabo, karen millen, gucci, toms shoes, links of london, ugg boots uk, ralph lauren, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, pandora charms, swarovski, montre pas cher, uggs on sale, ugg boots, hollister, juicy couture outlet, pandora charms, ray ban, bottes ugg, ugg boots, lancel, supra shoes, ugg boots, ugg pas cher, wedding dresses, coach outlet, marc jacobs, juicy couture outlet, louboutin, vans, converse outlet, converse, swarovski crystal, ugg boots, pandora jewelry, replica watches, hollister, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, nike air max
ninest123 08.08

mao qiuyun said...

michael kors handbags
chelsea jersey
polo lacoste pas cher
chanel outlet
north face jackets
tiffany and co
iphone 6 plus cases
coach outlet
kate spade outlet
gucci,borse gucci,gucci sito ufficiale,gucci outlet
tory burch outlet
ugg outlet, http://www.uggsoutlet.us.org
jordan shoes
rolex watches
oakley sunglasses, http://www.oakleysunglasseswholesale.in.net
fred perry polo shirts
ray ban sunglasses online
cheap wedding dresses
tiffany and co jewelry
hermes belt
ray-ban sunglasses, http://www.ray-bansunglassess.in.net
tods outlet
lululemon outlet, http://www.yogapants.us.com
swarovski crystal
asics running shoes
pandora jewelry
longchamp handbags
hollister clothing store
burberry outlet
links of london uk
stuart weitzman boots
pandora jewelry
san antonio spurs jerseys
the north face outlet
links of london
ralph lauren outlet
true religion outlet, http://www.truereligionjeansoutlet.com
0822maoqiuyun

Post a Comment